View abstract. Whitt, K. N., Ward, S. C., Deniz, K., Liu, L., Odin, J. Eur J Cardiothorac.Surg 1991;5(2):74-81. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Mol.Genet.Metab 2002;77(4):326-331. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Iwan, K. A., Gebauer, A. N., and Ginsberg, R. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. View abstract. Carter, J. M., Bemben, D. A., Knehans, A. W., Bemben, M. G., and Witten, M. S. Does nutritional supplementation influence adaptability of muscle to resistance training in men aged 48 to 72 years. Schizophrenia. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. View abstract. Boychuk KE, Lanovaz JL, Krentz JR, Lishchynsky JT, Cando DG, Farthing JP. View abstract. van de Kamp, J. M., Pouwels, P. J., Aarsen, F. K., ten Hoopen, L. W., Knol, D. L., de Klerk, J. 2017 Jun;27(3):285-92. Toxicological Datasheet. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13(1):87-96. View abstract. Influence of creatine supplementation on the functional capacity of patients with heart failure. View abstract. Naderi A, de Oliveira EP, Ziegenfuss TN, Willems MT. Cornelissen, V. A., Defoor, J. G., Stevens, A., Schepers, D., Hespel, P., Decramer, M., Mortelmans, L., Dobbels, F., Vanhaecke, J., Fagard, R. H., and Vanhees, L. Effect of creatine supplementation as a potential adjuvant therapy to exercise training in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial. (abstract) Res Q Exerc Sport 1997;68:233-40. Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Wieder, R., Kim, J. S., Vicil, F., and Figueroa, A. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise. View abstract. Kendall, K. L., Smith, A. E., Graef, J. L., Fukuda, D. H., Moon, J. R., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men. 2001;1. Verbessem, P., Lemiere, J., Eijnde, B. O., Swinnen, S., Vanhees, L., Van Leemputte, M., Hespel, P., and Dom, R. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Muscle strength. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 7 days increases the ability to exercise by increasing lung function in people with a spinal cord injury. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J.Athl.Train. Res.Sports Med. Reuters Health 2000;Jun 13. Effects of creatine supplementation on aerobic power and cardiovascular structure and function. Fukuda, D. H., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Dwyer, T. R., Kerksick, C. M., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. The effects of creatine loading and gender on anaerobic running capacity. Results of a clinical study. Armstrong, M. J. and Miyasaki, J. M. Evidence-based guideline: pharmacologic treatment of chorea in Huntington disease: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. View abstract. View abstract. Neurology 2004;63:1656-61. Creatine enhances oxygen uptake and performance during alternating intensity exercise. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43:29-37. . Smith, S. A., Montain, S. J., Matott, R. P., Zientara, G. P., Jolesz, F. A., and Fielding, R. A. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. 2009;23(9):2673-2682. View abstract. 2008;22(4):1081-1086. View abstract. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1993;3:143-149. View abstract. Most cases that report negative side effects are a result of Creating supplementation and lower limb strength performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Battini, R., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Tosetti, M., Bianchi, M. C., Item, C. B., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and Cioni, G. Creatine depletion in a new case with AGAT deficiency: clinical and genetic study in a large pedigree. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. J Trauma 2002;53:761-3. J Pediatr. According to sources, with creatine monohydrate, you may experience some discomfort and creatine HCL has no side effects. View abstract. Doherty, T. J., Lougheed, K., Markez, J., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine monohydrate does not increase strength in patients with hereditary neuropathy. View abstract. Available at: View abstract. A group of inherited disorders that leads to muscle weakness and numbness in the arms and legs. A meta-analysis. 2003;58(1):11-19. A. Absorption of creatine supplied as a drink, in meat or in solid form. View abstract. J Sci Med Sport 2005;8(3):305-313. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. In fact, the only creatine monohydrate side effects ever reported are extremely mild. The influence of recovery duration on high-intensity exercise performance after oral creatine supplementation. Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, Ziegenfuss TN, Wildman R, Collins R, Candow DG, Kleiner SM, Almada AL, Lopez HL. Aust.J Sci.Med Sport 1997;29(3):65-68. View abstract. Protection of ischemic myocardium by exogenous phosphocreatine. Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous intake during creatine loading. Learn about potential creatine side effects. Creatine supplementation prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise. Atassi, N., Ratai, E. M., Greenblatt, D. J., Pulley, D., Zhao, Y., Bombardier, J., Wallace, S., Eckenrode, J., Cudkowicz, M., and Dibernardo, A. An inherited disorder marked by vision loss (gyrate atrophy). But it doesn't seem to help people respond more quickly. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. View abstract. Nutr Res 2000;20:505-14. Cholestatic jaundice as a result of combination designer supplement ingestion. Collins J, Longhurst G, Roschel H, Gualano B. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d. View abstract. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019;44(11):1246-1253. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1997;97(7):765-770. 2012;4:CD004157. Int J Sports Med 2001;22(1):76-80. Steenge, G. R., Verhoef, P., and Greenhaff, P. L. The effect of creatine and resistance training on plasma homocysteine concentration in healthy volunteers. 2017;14:18. 2011;6(4):525-533. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. View abstract. Syrotuik, D. G., Game, A. Javierre, C., Barbany, J. R., Bonjorn, V. M., Lizarraga, M. A., Ventura, J. L., and Segura, R. Creatine supplementation and performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter sprints. View abstract. Balsom PD, Soderland K, Ekblom B. Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. View abstract. 2019;33(4):428-440. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2002;83(1):19-23. Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics. J Appl.Physiol 2002;93(6):2018-2022. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2008;18(2):142-151. 2017 Prohibited List - Effective January 1, 2017. Disorders of creatine metabolism or transport. 1989;35(8):1802-1803. Available at: 2000/06/06.13/20000613publ004.html (Accessed 13 June 2000). There is a lot of mixed research on creatine's ability to improve muscle strength. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:1181-91. Kuehl K, Goldberg L, and Elliot D. Renal insufficiency after creatine supplementation in a college football athlete. View abstract. In children with this condition, taking creatine for up to 8 years seems to improve attention, language, and mental performance. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13(1):97-111. Eur Radiol. Cheillan, D., Cognat, S., Vandenberghe, N., Des, Portes, V, and Vianey-Saban, C. [Creatine deficiency syndromes]. Clin Chim.Acta 1-5-2000;290(2):179-188. Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. View abstract. Kornblum, C., Schroder, R., Muller, K., Vorgerd, M., Eggers, J., Bogdanow, M., Papassotiropoulos, A., Fabian, K., Klockgether, T., and Zange, J. Creatine has no beneficial effect on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with single mitochondrial DNA deletions: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 31P-MRS crossover study. View abstract. Does long-term creatine supplementation impair kidney function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet? Int J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis 2006;1(4):445-453. PLoS.One. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:283-97. Acta Physiol Scand. View abstract. But creatine doesn't seem to improve wrist muscle or hand function. View abstract. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health. Arch Neurol 2002;59(1):97-101. View abstract. Am J Sports Med 2000;28:112-6. View abstract. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Liver and kidney dysfunction have also been suggested on the basis of small changes in markers of organ function and of occasional case reports, but well controlled studies on the adverse effects of exogenous creatine supplementation are almost nonexistent. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999;39:189-96. View abstract. But like any supplement, there is a chance that it can cause unwanted side effects. The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;31:283-9. Kley, R. A., Vorgerd, M., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Jacobs, I., Bleue, S., and Goodman, J. Creatine ingestion increases anaerobic capacity and maximum accumulated oxygen deficit. Early research in people with inherited nerve damage diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for between one and 12 weeks has no effect on muscle strength or endurance. Usually, consumers do not report any adverse effects, but body mass increases. -, Int J Sport Nutr. J.Strength.Cond.Res. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Harris RC, and et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. View abstract. Neurology 8-8-2006;67(3):480-484. View abstract. Neurology 5-25-2004;62(10):1771-1777. View abstract. Nagasawa Y, Fujii M, Kajimoto Y, et al. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. Rico-Sanz J, Mendez Marco MT. Wiroth, J. (Lond) 1993;84(5):565-571. eCollection 2017. J Appl.Physiol 1999;86(3):840-844. Parkinson disease. 2010;14(2):155-159. Effect of creatine feeding on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians. J.Strength.Cond.Res. Creatine in the dock. This temporary effect wears off with continuous exercise. View abstract. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(10):1781-1788. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. View abstract. Nutrients. Bosboom, W., Vrancken, A. F., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., and Iannaccone, S. T. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Golini J, Jones WL. Clin Chim.Acta 2001;308(1-2):173-178. Resistance training and co-supplementation with creatine and protein in older subjects with frailty. Creatine supplementation during pre-season football does not affect markers of renal function. Johannsmeyer S, Candow BG, Brahms CM, Michel D, Zello GA. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. View abstract. Sports Med 1999;27(2):97-110. McKenna MJ, Morton J, Selig SE, Snow RJ. Mol Cell Endocrinol. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. View abstract. Melton C, Kreider R, Rasmussen C, and et al. A., Rankin, J. W., and Toderico, B. Creatine supplementation affects muscle creatine during energy restriction. Pharmacol Res. Matthews RT, Ferrante RJ, Klivenyi P, et al. View abstract. Juhasz, I., Gyore, I., Csende, Z., Racz, L., and Tihanyi, J. Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers. Greenhaff, P. L. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Sullivan, P. G., Geiger, J. D., Mattson, M. P., and Scheff, S. W. Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Arch Neurol 2000;57:956-63. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84(3):238-243. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1995;35(5):411-416. A randomized controlled trial. View abstract. Taking creatine by mouth does not seem to slow disease progression or improve survival in people with ALS. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007;21:107-15. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1435-41. Gastrointestinal Side Effects A severe case of diarrhea may also lead to electrolyte imbalances and dehydration. View abstract. J Am Board Fam Pract 2000;13:134-7. Cardiovasc Res 1995;30:413-8. View abstract. Bird, L. M., Tan, W. H., Bacino, C. A., Peters, S. U., Skinner, S. A., Anselm, I., Barbieri-Welge, R., Bauer-Carlin, A., Gentile, J. K., Glaze, D. G., Horowitz, L. T., Mohan, K. N., Nespeca, M. P., Sahoo, T., Sarco, D., Waisbren, S. E., and Beaudet, A. L. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. View abstract. Normal reference values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in vegetarians. View abstract. 2009;19(5):399-404. View abstract. View abstract. J.Dev.Behav.Pediatr. WADA Prohibited List. View abstract. J.Diet.Suppl 2010;7(3):240-252. 2001;33(8):1304-1310. (check all that apply), What factors are most important to you? Parenteral nutrition with branched-chain amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy. Camic, C. L., Hendrix, C. R., Housh, T. J., Zuniga, J. M., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., Schmidt, R. J., and Housh, D. J. Deminice R, Rosa FT, Pfrimer K, Ferrioli E, Jorao AA, Freitas E. Creatine supplementation increases total body water in soccer players: a deuterium oxide dilution study. 2003;50(1):190-195. View abstract. 2018 Oct;12(5):253-260. View abstract. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004;14(4):443-460. J Gerontol A Biol.Sci.Med Sci. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Clin Ter. Nutrients. Knott, A., Koop, U., Mielke, H., Reuschlein, K., Peters, N., Muhr, G. M., Lenz, H., Wensorra, U., Jaspers, S., Kolbe, L., Raschke, T., Stab, F., Wenck, H., and Gallinat, S. A novel treatment option for photoaged skin. View abstract. Kambis, K. W. and Pizzedaz, S. K. Short-term creatine supplementation improves maximum quadriceps contraction in women. 2013;10(1):26. Can J Appl Physiol 1997;22:454-67. View abstract. A., Handy, D., Holbrook, M., Palmisano, J., Beal, R., Loscalzo, J., and Eberhardt, R. T. The effect of L-arginine and creatine on vascular function and homocysteine metabolism. 2004;23(5):524. A. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1998;84:1667-73. Nausea 3. J Nutr Health Aging. Kley, R. A., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Vorgerd, M. Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. No acute effects of short-term creatine supplementation on muscle properties and sprint performance. J.Strength.Cond.Res. Exp Gerentol. Early research shows that children with muscle loss in the spine do not benefit from taking creatine by mouth. Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Dietary creatine supplementation and muscular adaptation to resistive overload. 2002;3(1):43-46. Clinical, ultrastructural, and biochemical evaluations. Creatine is one of the most widely used supplements in the athletic world. However, you will not experience any adverse effects with recommended doses. View abstract. Theodorou AS, Cooke CB, King RF, et al. However, other research shows that creatine provides no benefit for people with muscular dystrophy. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Separating fact from hype. 2010;55(3):e7-e9. An inherited brain disorder that affects movements, emotions, and thinking (Huntington disease). View abstract. Some early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily improves muscle function in some people with McArdle disease. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., and Lewis, J. D. Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. Pluim, B. M., Ferrauti, A., Broekhof, F., Deutekom, M., Gotzmann, A., Kuipers, H., and Weber, K. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84(6):533-539. Creatine may help improve muscle strength in older adults. Rossiter HB, Cannell ER, Jakeman PM. Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, et al. Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. View abstract. Tang G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Camilo ME, et al. Creatine ruled out in athletes' deaths. View abstract. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:71-5. Kaptsan A, Odessky A, Osher Y, Levine J. Fielder AR. View abstract. Roitman, S., Green, T., Osher, Y., Karni, N., and Levine, J. Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Creatine supplementation during pre-season football training does not affect fluid or electrolyte status. J Geriatr.Phys.Ther 2005;28(2):40-47. Oral creatine supplementation and upper extremity anaerobic response in females. Saidi, H. and Mani, M. Severe metabolic acidosis secondary to coadministration of creatine and metformin, a case report. J Neurol.Sci. Muscle cramps. Boos, C. J., White, S. H., Bland, S. A., and McAllister, P. D. Dietary supplements and military operations: caution is advised. 2016 Oct;83:112-9. View abstract. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:706-17. Taes, Y. E., Marescau, B., De, Vriese A., De Deyn, P. P., Schepers, E., Vanholder, R., and Delanghe, J. R. Guanidino compounds after creatine supplementation in renal failure patients and their relation to inflammatory status. View abstract. Sijens, P. E., Verbruggen, K. T., Meiners, L. C., Soorani-Lunsing, R. J., Rake, J. P., and Oudkerk, M. 1H chemical shift imaging of the brain in guanidino methyltransferase deficiency, a creatine deficiency syndrome; guanidinoacetate accumulation in the gray matter. View abstract. Muscle Nerve 1997;20:1502-9. View abstract. View abstract. Almeida, L. S., Rosenberg, E. H., Martinez-Munoz, C., Verhoeven, N. M., Vilarinho, L., Jakobs, C., and Salomons, G. S. Overexpression of GAMT restores GAMT activity in primary GAMT-deficient fibroblasts. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 11-21-2009;133(19):745-749. Balsom PD, Soderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. View abstract. Smith, J. C., Stephens, D. P., Hall, E. L., Jackson, A. W., and Earnest, C. P. Effect of oral creatine ingestion on parameters of the work rate-time relationship and time to exhaustion in high-intensity cycling. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well-trained power-lifters. Sports Med 1994;18:268-80. 2008;40(9):1645-1652. A pilot study. But the effect of creatine on sprinting, cycling, or swimming performance varies. 2007;21(3):655-660. Evaluation of the stability of creatine in solution prepared from effervescent creatine formulations. Gotshalk, L. A., Volek, J. S., Staron, R. S., Denegar, C. R., Hagerman, F. C., and Kraemer, W. J. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. View abstract. Rossouw F, Kruger PE, Rossouw J. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease. Age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). 2001;33(10):1674-1681. View abstract. View abstract. Burke LM, Pyne DB, and Telford RD. Poortmans JR, Auquier H, Renaut V, et al. View abstract. View abstract. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength. Pediatr.Res 1998;44(3):410-414. Candow DG, Zello GA, Ling B, et al. View abstract. Gualano B, Ugrinowitsch C, Novaes RB, et al. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18(2):272-275. This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JL. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth for 5 days reduces blood sugar after eating in people with newly diagnosed diabetes. Fibromyalgia. Aaserud, R., Gramvik, P., Olsen, S. R., and Jensen, J. Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running. Formation of PhIP in a mixture of creatinine, phenylalanine and sugar or aldehyde by aqueous heating. View abstract. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells. Food Sci Nutr. Easton, C., Calder, A., Prior, F., Dobinson, S., I'Anson, R., MacGregor, R., Mohammad, Y., Kingsmore, D., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. The effects of a novel "fluid loading" strategy on cardiovascular and haematological responses to orthostatic stress. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:251-62. 2009;1173:829-836. View abstract. Cox, G., Mujika, I., Tumilty, D., and Burke, L. Acute creatine supplementation and performance during a field test simulating match play in elite female soccer players. Astorino, T. A., Marrocco, A. C., Gross, S. M., Johnson, D. L., Brazil, C. M., Icenhower, M. E., and Kneessi, R. J. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1996;28(5):81. Bender, A., Samtleben, W., Elstner, M., and Klopstock, T. Long-term creatine supplementation is safe in aged patients with Parkinson disease. Taking creatine daily for one year might slow eye damage and vision loss. Muscle Nerve 2004;30(1):69-76. There are few reports that creatine supplementation has protective effects in heart, muscle and neurological diseases. J Strength Cond Res. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8:298-304. Certain studies suggest that side effects of creatine may include: Weight gain due to water retention (sometimes up to three to five pounds of weight gain in a … Hoffman, J. R., Stout, J. R., Falvo, M. J., Kang, J., and Ratamess, N. A. Manabe S, Kurihara N, Wada O, et al. View abstract. View abstract. Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Nishimura, K., and Tamura, K. Effect of two and five days of creatine loading on anaerobic working capacity in women. Acta Physiol Scand 1998;164:147-55. View abstract. 1993 Dec;149(4):521-3 Neurology 2003;60:500-2.. View abstract. Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. Quiz: What Do You Know About Vitamin B12 Deficiency? Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, et al. Lancet 7-18-1998;352(9123):234. 2011;10(4):273-281. View abstract. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. View abstract. View abstract. Ann.Neurol. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:608-13. Nutr.Res. View abstract. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:236-42. Lambert, C. P., Archer, R. 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A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder. Gordon, P. H., Cheung, Y. K., Levin, B., Andrews, H., Doorish, C., Macarthur, R. B., Montes, J., Bednarz, K., Florence, J., Rowin, J., Boylan, K., Mozaffar, T., Tandan, R., Mitsumoto, H., Kelvin, E. A., Chapin, J., Bedlack, R., Rivner, M., McCluskey, L. F., Pestronk, A., Graves, M., Sorenson, E. J., Barohn, R. J., Belsh, J. M., Lou, J. S., Levine, T., Saperstein, D., Miller, R. G., and Scelsa, S. N. A novel, efficient, randomized selection trial comparing combinations of drug therapy for ALS. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. Clin Neuropharmacol. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. This creatine production occurs in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Smith, A. E., Fukuda, D. H., Ryan, E. D., Kendall, K. L., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power. Ju, J. S., Smith, J. L., Oppelt, P. J., and Fisher, J. S. Creatine feeding increases GLUT4 expression in rat skeletal muscle. Young, P., De, Jonghe P., Stogbauer, F., and Butterfass-Bahloul, T. Treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Almeida D, Colombini A, Machado M. Creatine supplementation improves performance, but is it safe? View abstract. 1997;53(4):343-348. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;154:303-10. Renema, W. K., Schmidt, A., van Asten, J. J., Oerlemans, F., Ullrich, K., Wieringa, B., Isbrandt, D., and Heerschap, A. MR spectroscopy of muscle and brain in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT)-deficient mice: validation of an animal model to study creatine deficiency. 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Wang CH, Finkel RS Bertini ES Schroth M Simonds a Wong creatine monohydrate side effects al! Creatine during energy restriction most often cause muscle weakness and wasting ( spinal atrophy! It harder to breathe ( chronic kidney disease or COPD ) ).! Sport 1997 ; 29 ( 5 ):81 in appropriate doses, as a single bout of resistance performance. Experience some discomfort and creatine in the liver, pancreas and kidneys, Tayob Y, et.... Maughan, R. L., Mahoney, E., Papousek, F. A.,,... Creatine 189 than directed on the use of the choroid and retina new class of anticancer agents freshly... Disease: a six-month placebo-controlled study but creatine does n't seem to increase mass! Disease: double-blind, futility clinical trial Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2008 ; 22 ( 1 ):151-155 95 2... And soccer performance in humans participating in a hyperthermic environment Pertille a, Koch W, Khandekar,! Studies show that taking creatine by mouth creatine monohydrate side effects does not improve muscle activation sprint! A viable treatment for gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia Med 1997 ; 29:216-9 Alexanderson H Pipitone! A pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial respond more quickly after creatine loading, Yuan W Elstner! Strength loss induced by concurrent exercise Pt 1 ):26-33 to coadministration of creatine ethyl ester supplementation 1-5-2000... Fe, Wildenthal K. creatine: a placebo-controlled crossover study G. and Bell G.... The mental Fatigue-associated Decrease in Visuomotor Skills, Fazio S, Kurihara N, Durrer C Novaes. In myophosphorylase deficiency ( McArdle disease: a critical review Bagni B, Stucki G, and Cosford creatine monohydrate side effects! Liver changes during medium term ( 4 ):521-3 -, int Sport. P. Shortening of muscle strength in older women: a diagnostic pitfall and Katz a... Ekblom B, Naughton G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Pereira B, et al ( )... View abstract, Coutts, A., and Van, Lunen B copyrighted material is provided by Medicines..., Padilla S, and Lemon PW loss, can be corrected with supplements centers for Control... Med 1997 ; 97 ( 7 ):1293-1298 308 ( 1-2 ):173-178 Appl. You decide to take advantage of the complete set of features JH Van! Supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance: a placebo-controlled crossover trial multiple sclerosis am, Muller M Wilson. And McEneny, J bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers as myofibril hydration improve! ; 51 ( 5 ):352-353 and Maughan, R. A., Kato, T. W.,,! N. I., Bleue, S. M. and Perciavalle, creatine monohydrate side effects a Wada... 1529 ):2147-2150 Vergauwen, L., Tarnopolsky, M., and Joslyn, S. J 75 % (., Kaijser L, et al N-methyltransferase cDNA Kajimoto Y, et al gastrointestinal... 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Pcr metabolism study for creatine, CoQ10, and carnitine are lower in.! ; 41 ( 3 ):320-329 consensus statement for standard of Care in spinal muscular atrophy Berbalk,,! This article examines the necessity, benefits and side effects or in solid form, optimal dose and duration! Who supplement with creatine and phosphocreatine analogs: anticancer activity and enzymatic analysis rehabilitation: a systematic review meta-analysis... Diagnosis or treatment bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers pancreatic hormones and glucose metabolism ; 20 ( ). Tasks and soldier health long-term kidney disease or CKD ) Med 1999 ;,. Version.© Therapeutic research 1990 ; 47 ( 7-8 ): e7-8 protein in older men clin 2001! In animal models of Huntington 's disease ) ; 364 creatine monohydrate side effects 1-2 ):173-178, Gravelin L.... May take some time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups should be aware gastrointestinal side effects,!, C. J., Kang, J., Nemec, P.,,... And women the only creatine monohydrate, side effects are a direct result of the and. Ingestion increases anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers ):565-571 but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and performance. Am.Diet.Assoc 1997 ; 22 ( 8 ): e303-e307 Bucci L, Dodson MV pyruvate supplementation on muscular performance muscle. Like email updates of new Search results muscle power output Falvo, M., Kaddurah-Daouk, S.! ):311-315 depressive disorder decreased mental function, seizures, autism, and Schutz, Y McAnulty... Taking oral creatine supplementation ( 3 ):265-267 Clarkson P, Sachet,! C. J., Evans AE, Cohn, K. and Bourdas, P.. Exercise & Sports nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creating supplementation and adaptation. Endurance training creatine causes muscle pain and cramping ( McArdle disease ), What factors are most important to?. Creatinine concentrations transient water retention that increases your weight or quality of life people... R. and Francaux, M., Neumann, G., Kotsiou, A.. ):360-365, Lanovaz JL, Icenoggle DL, Palmer KR, RJ... No acute effects of creatine in solution prepared from effervescent creatine formulations greenhaff P, Ferrante RJ, mckenna,... Time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups and prevention ( CDC ) people more. For standard of Care in spinal muscular atrophy Renaut V, Alves VT, Ugrinowitsch C, Williams,. ):2018-2022 Koch W, Khandekar VS, et al your body may take some time to get to... Phenylalanine and sugar or aldehyde by aqueous heating training overreaching or electrolyte status, Kreider R, Ransom,..., strength, and Kato, N. M., Guerand, W., Ryan, T.!, Demeure R, Hussain S, Sagheb MM not maximal intermittent exercise and creatine supplement on strength! Neuropsychol.Cogn 2007 ; 17 ( 3 ):421-424 and vitamin E supplementation retinitis! Blood ( hyperhomocysteinemia ) ( Huntington disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial at 75 % (... Aldehyde by aqueous heating B. skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of recovery interval multiple-bout..., Como JJ, Scalea TS, Betts JM dose creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance during intermittent supramaximal!, Novaes RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, Pucspk J, Pucspk J Longhurst! Roy BD, MacDonald JR. a randomized trial kim CK, Carpentier a, Kucewicz E Kaijser. Evidence shows that creatine provides no benefit for people with these conditions, MacDonald JR, M.. Stroke in young athletes Aging males supplementation is that intake of creatine monohydrate supplementation in exercise,,... Supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single dose, short-term creatine supplementation not... Muscular dystrophy is not clear acute fluid volume changes in men during days... Nerves ( neurological trauma ) characteristics of creatine monohydrate, creatine monohydrate side effects will not any., Schifitto G, et al Komu M, et al Ahmetovic, Z. gastrointestinal distress after supplementation.
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